The Evolution And Significance Of The Powered Bulk Carrier

Roy Fenton Liverpool University Press History

The book is the first to detail the 170-year evolution of the powered bulk carriers which continue to have a major role in the world’s trades and economies. Their design and technological development is traced from the screw colliers of the 1850s which revolutionised the British coastal coal trade. The same engineering principles were applied to produce ocean-going steam and later motor tramps. By the end of the 19th century, the capabilities and economies of these ‘black freighters’ had captured from the sailing ship much of the world’s trade in bulk commodities. In the second half of the 20th century, the tramps in turn evolved into multi-purpose, dry bulk carriers. These workhorses of the sea transport commodities including metallic ores, grain, coal, timber and other minerals. Quantities of up to 400,000 tons are carried in the largest, specialised ore carriers. In a parallel development, applying the same technical principles produced smaller yet efficient steam and later motor coasters which came to dominate short sea shipping. The book concludes with a discussion of how the economies of transportation provided by bulk carriers have had profound effects on industrialisation, globalisation and the world’s economy, and discusses the environmental impact of these ships.

ISBN10 : 9781837646555 , ISBN13 : 1837646554

Page Number : 288

Bibliography Of Nautical Books

Alan Obin

This is the 15th annual edition of the Bibliography of Nautical Books, a reference guide to over 14,000 nautical publications. It deals specifically with the year 2000.

ISBN10 : 0948646152 , ISBN13 : 9780948646157

Page Number : 886

From Ship S Cook To Baronet

David Jenkins University of Wales Press History

Sir William Reardon Smith (1856-1935) was one of the foremost figures in south Wales in the early twentieth century. His was a classic story of 'rags to riches' - starting life as a deck-hand and ship's cook, he made a fortune in the shipping industry at the zenith of the Welsh coal trade.

ISBN10 : 9780708324240 , ISBN13 : 070832424X

Page Number : 244

Reading And Vocabulary Focus 4

Catherine Mazur-Jefferies Cengage Learning Foreign Language Study

National Geographic Reading and Vocabulary Focus is an all-new, four-level reading series that provides the essential reading skills and vocabulary development for maximum academic readiness. Readings grounded in rich National Geographic content tap into learners' curiosity about the world, naturally encouraging inquiry and opportunities to synthesize information. - A comprehensive, three-part vocabulary development program builds student confidence as learners encounter new or unfamiliar words in academic texts: - Academic Vocabulary sections develop the language that students will encounter in academic readings. - Multiword Vocabulary sections identify words that are commonly grouped together and then prompt learners to work with them in different contexts for enhanced comprehension. - Topic Vocabulary is presented as a reading preview strategy to enhance learner comprehension of the text. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

ISBN10 : 9780357737996 , ISBN13 : 0357737997

Page Number : 240

The Food Industries Of Europe In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries

Alain Drouard Routledge Social Science

The industrialization of food preservation and processing has been a dramatic development across Europe during modern times. This book sets out its story from the beginning of the nineteenth century when preservation of food from one harvest to another was essential to prevent hunger and even famine. Population growth and urbanization depended upon a break out from the ’biological ancien regime’ in which hunger was an ever-present threat. The application of mass production techniques by the food industries was essential to the modernization of Europe. From the mid-nineteenth century the development of food industries followed a marked regional pattern. After an initial growth in north-west Europe, the spread towards south-east Europe was slowed by social, cultural and political constraints. This was notable in the post-Second World War era. The picture of change in this volume is presented by case studies of countries ranging from the United Kingdom in the west to Romania in the east. All illustrate the role of food industries in creating new products that expanded the traditional cereal-based diet of pre-industrial Europe. Industrially preserved and processed foods provided new flavours and appetizing novelties which led to brand names recognized by consumers everywhere. Product marketing and advertising became fundamental to modern food retailing so that Europe’s largest food producers, Danone, Nestlé and Unilever, are numbered amongst the world’s biggest companies.

ISBN10 : 9781317031536 , ISBN13 : 1317031539

Page Number : 310